Ageing population in Indonesia

For the past three decades, Indonesia has made significant progress in economic and human development, which has resulted in better health conditions and longer life expectancy, creating a growing population of older people.[i]

The information on the ageing population in this country is presented under three sections: 1.) Situation of older people, 2.) Key facts  and 3.) Government policies related to older people.

In addition, HelpAge publishes Global AgeWatch Index that ranks countries by how well their ageing populations are faring.  You can find data set of 96 countries, including country report card for Indonesia.



Situation of older people

The number of older people is growing: Globally, Indonesia has the fifth-largest elderly population in the world.[ii] In 2012, there were nearly 21 million older people.[iii] Life expectancy has increased dramatically, from 45 in 1970 to 69.2 for males and 71 for women in 2010. At the same time, the birth rate has declined, resulting in an ageing population. It is estimated that by the year 2020, ageing population in Indonesia will reach 11.34 per cent of total population.[iv]

Older people struggle with poverty: Indonesia has made progress on reducing poverty but many people remain poor and vulnerable. Around 32.5 million Indonesians currently live below the poverty line.[v] Indonesia ranked 124 out of 187 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index in 2011 and is categorized as having a medium level of human development. However, Indonesia is still below the regional average when compared with others countries in East Asia and the Pacific.[vi] Only 25 per cent of older persons receive an old age pension, while 75 per cent who work in the non-formal sector have no old age security at all.

Older people need care and support: Older women in Indonesia are particularly vulnerable as they have less access to education, lower earnings, and are subject to discrimination and exclusion from decision-making processes within households and communities.[vii]

Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged: Population ageing varies among Indonesian provinces due to variations in fertility and rising life expectancy. Around half the population lives in rural areas[viii], where agriculture is the main source of income. Millions of small farmers, farm workers and fishers are unable to tap into opportunities presented by the country’s broader economic growth as they are often geographically isolated and lack access to agricultural extension services, markets and financial services.[ix]

Key facts

Below are the key statistics on Indonesia’s population of older people:

2012 2050
Older people (total) 20,834,000 74,703,000
Older people as percentage of total population 8.5% 25.5%
Life expectancy (males) 68
Life expectancy (females) 72


2012 2030
Old age dependency ratio (ratio of people 60+ to those of working age) 13.3% 17.2%
Older people in poverty 15%
Rural older people 11,612,232
Urban older people 12,380,321
Older people living alone (60-80) 14.6%
Older people living alone (80+) 7.5%
Older women as a percentage of the population aged 60+ 1.18%


Government policies related to older people

  • Presidential Decree on the National Day of Older Persons, 29 May 1996
  • Legislation on the Social Welfare of older persons, Law no 13, 1998
  • Presidential Decree no 52, 2004 on the National Commission Ageing
  • Legislation on People’s Welfare, Law no 11, 2009
  • National Plan of Action on Ageing, 2003-2008 (renewed every 5 years)
  • National Social Security System Legislation no. 40 / 2004
  • Minister of Home Affairs Decree no. 60/2008 on Formation of Regional Commission on Ageing
  • Legislation on Health Care no 23/1992 and Legislation no 36/2009
  • National Social Security System, Legislation no 40/2004



The following are recent publications and resources related to Indonesia’s older population.

More information can be found on the following websites:

Our network

  • Yayasan Emong Lansia
  • Indonesia Research on Ageing (InresAge)
  • Alzheimer Indonesia
  • Survey Meter
  • GNLP (Gerakan Nasional Peduli Lansia)


[i] 2012

[ii] Statistics Indonesia, 2010 Census

[iii] UNFPA and HelpAge International, 2012, Ageing in the 21st Century

[iv] 2012

[v] The World Bank 2011

[vi] United Nations Development Index 2011

[vii] International Fund for Agricultural Development

[viii] World Bank 2011

[ix] International Fund for Agricultural Development

[x] 2012

[xi] 2012


2017-11-06T14:56:11+00:00 Tags: , |