South East Asia and the Pacific are impacted by natural hazards to greater extent than any other region in the world. Every year, disasters cause significant loss of life and hinder economic and social development.
Over the last five years, major disasters include floods in Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines; volcano eruptions in Indonesia; tsunamis, typhoons and cyclones in Myanmar and the Philippines; and storm surges, drought and earthquakes. During the past decades an average of more than 200 million people have been affected and more than 70,000 people killed by natural disasters each year.[i]
The number of natural disasters is rising and the effects of climate change mean the number of people affected by emergencies is predicted to rise dramatically over the next decade.
Emergencies impact on older people
Emergencies affect most those people who are already vulnerable such as the poor, near-poor and older people. The problems these groups face are compounded by the destruction of their families and communities.
In the chaos associated with the early stages of emergencies, older people are physically less able than most other adults to struggle for foods and other resources. They cannot travel long distances to where resources may be more readily available and find it difficult to endure even relatively short periods without shelter and amenities.
Many older people had problems in accessing relief aid as they are forced to compete with able-bodied people. Additionally, loss of life caused by emergencies results in trauma and grief and creates greater vulnerability, for example through isolation or increased responsibilities caring for survivors.
Older people’s needs in emergency situations
Older people have specific needs in emergency situations. For example:
Preparing for an emergency
Preparing for a potential emergency can reduce its impact. Examples of preparedness activities include:
How older people help in an emergency
The social knowledge, experience and credibility of older people are critical in identifying and targeting the most vulnerable in a community. Older people can also play an active role in organising and distributing relief materials.
Both older men and older women play crucial roles in emergency situations. Older men generally perform tasks such as:
Older women tend to perform tasks such as:
Following the initial emergency response, older people help the community to recover by assisting with damage needs assessment and rebuilding houses.
The psychosocial wellbeing of older people post-disaster is enhanced by encouraging them to get involved in activities and initiatives that help others. Older people who remain engaged develop a sense of self worth and no longer feel like passive victims, therefore alleviating feelings of helplessness or depression.
How the HelpAge network helps in an emergency
The HelpAge network works to ensure older people are included in immediate and long-term humanitarian relief efforts on the ground, and in humanitarian policies and guidelines. Following an emergency, HelpAge International and network organiations:
The impact of emergencies can be reduced with a focus on prevention and early action as resilient households and communities have the ability to adapt to changes including disasters and other stresses.
HelpAge builds the resilience of older people and the community through capacity building and advocacy, embedding disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in long term programming.
In addition, there are several actions governments and organisations can do to improve the lives of older people:
The Coalition of Services to the Elderly (COSE) facilitates mitigation and emergency preparedness actions led by the older people include sand bagging, tree planting, recycling, hazard mapping, capacity and vulnerability assessment. It also conducts community drills with members of older people’s associations and raises awareness so that older people know their rights in an emergency. Older people’s associations play an important role in organising post-disaster relief and have formed disaster committees. Older people’s involvement in the entire process has been the key to success.
The Foundation for Older Persons Development (FOPDEV) works with media and Thai public broadcasting services to conduct a citizen’s report and develop a network that can communicate information about disasters via social media. They also work on-the ground to disseminate information to community, often through community radio.
In Indonesia older people have been involved in focus group discussions and exchange visits to learn from the disaster recovery and response activities of other older people’s associations. A consortium of 13 national agencies, led by Humanitarian Forum Indonesia has completed training on how to include older people in emergency response and disaster risk reduction. This training was followed by an information sharing visit to the Philippines.
Through advocacy and educating civil society organisations to the vulnerabilities of older people, their capacity can be strengthened to incorporate age-friendly approaches into existing programs.
Mock drills and first aid training have also been initiated with the involvement of older people.
In Myanmar, older people play an active role in establishing Village Disaster Management Committees and make significant contributions to historical analysis, hazard analysis and climate change analysis. Older people have become focal persons to receive and disseminate information about early warnings.
ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER)
AADMER promotes regional cooperation and collaboration to reduce disaster losses and intensify joint emergency response to disasters in the ASEAN region.
AADMER enables and facilitates the involvement of civil society organisations and local authorities in each country to increase awareness of the vulnerability and capacity of groups including older people, women and children. It also raises awareness of national disaster risk reduction and disaster management policies, plans and programs.
AADMER contains provisions on disaster risk identification, monitoring and early warning, prevention and mitigation, preparedness and response, rehabilitation, technical cooperation and research, mechanisms for coordination, and simplified customs and immigration procedures.