For the past three decades, Indonesia has made significant progress in economic and human development, which has resulted in better health conditions and longer life expectancy, creating a growing population of older people.[i]
In addition, HelpAge publishes Global AgeWatch Index that ranks countries by how well their ageing populations are faring. You can find data set of 96 countries, including country report card for Indonesia.
The number of older people is growing: Globally, Indonesia has the fifth-largest elderly population in the world.[ii] In 2012, there were nearly 21 million older people.[iii] Life expectancy has increased dramatically, from 45 in 1970 to 69.2 for males and 71 for women in 2010. At the same time, the birth rate has declined, resulting in an ageing population. It is estimated that by the year 2020, aging population in Indonesia will reach 11.34 per cent of total population.[iv]
Older people struggle with poverty: Indonesia has made progress on reducing poverty but many people remain poor and vulnerable. Around 32.5 million Indonesians currently live below the poverty line.[v] Indonesia ranked 124 out of 187 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index in 2011 and is categorized as having a medium level of human development. However, Indonesia is still below the regional average when compared with others countries in East Asia and the Pacific.[vi] Only 25 per cent of older persons receive an old age pension, while 75 per cent who work in the non-formal sector have no old age security at all.
Older people need care and support: Older women in Indonesia are particularly vulnerable as they have less access to education, lower earnings, and are subject to discrimination and exclusion from decision-making processes within households and communities.[vii]
Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged: Population ageing varies among Indonesian provinces due to variations in fertility and rising life expectancy. Around half the population lives in rural areas[viii], where agriculture is the main source of income. Millions of small farmers, farm workers and fishers are unable to tap into opportunities presented by the country’s broader economic growth as they are often geographically isolated and lack access to agricultural extension services, markets and financial services.[ix]
Below are the key statistics on Indonesia’s population of older people:
|Older people (total)||20,834,000||74,703,000|
|Older people as percentage of total population||8.5%||25.5%|
|Life expectancy (males)||68|
|Life expectancy (females)||72|
|Old age dependency ratio (ratio of people 60+ to those of working age)||13.3%||17.2%|
|Older people in poverty||15%|
|Rural older people||11,612,232|
|Urban older people||12,380,321|
|Older people living alone (60-80)||14.6%|
|Older people living alone (80+)||7.5%|
|Older women as a percentage of the population aged 60+||1.18%|
The following are recent publications and resources related to Indonesia’s older population.
More information can be found on the following websites: